UNIT 1 Vowel Sounds

PRONUNCIATION SYMBOLS

UCLA WORD Cambridge Longman Collins Oxford Dictionary .com Macmillan Merriam Websters This Book
Am Brit Brit Brit
/ɑ/ bOt /ɑ/ /ɒ/ /ɑ/ /ɒ/ /ɒ/ /ɒ/ /ɒ/ /ä/ /ɑ/
/i/ bEEt /iː/ /iː/ /iː/ /iː/ /iː/ /i/ /iː/ /ē/ /iː/
/ɪ/ bIt /ɪ/ /ɪ/ /ɪ/ /ɪ/ /ɪ/ /ɪ/ /ɪ/ /i/ /i/
/e/ bAIt /eɪ/ /eɪ/ /eɪ/ /eɪ/ /eɪ/ /eɪ/ /eɪ/ /ā/ /ei/
/ɛ/ bEt /e/ /e/ /e/ /e/ /ɛ/ /ɛ/ /e/ /e/ /e/
/æ/ bAt /æ/ /æ/ /æ/ /æ/ /a/ /æ/ /æ/ /a/ /æ/
/u/ bOOt /uː/ /uː/ /uː/ /uː/ /uː/ /u/ /uː/ /ü/ /uː/
/ʊ/ gOOd /ʊ/ /ʊ/ /ʊ/ /ʊ/ /ʊ/ /ʊ/ /ʊ/ /u̇/ /u/
/o/ bOAt /oʊ/ /əʊ/ /oʊ/ /oʊ/ /əʊ/ /oʊ/ /əʊ/ /ō/ /ou/
/ɔ/ bOUght /ɔ/ /ɔ/ /ɔ/ /ɔ/ /ɔ/ /ɔ/ /ɔ/ /ȯ/ /ɔ/
/ə/ abbOt /ə/ /ə/ /ə/ /ə/ /ə/ /ə/ /ə/ /ə/ /ə/
/ʌ/ bUt /ʌ/ /ʌ/ /ʌ/ /ʌ/ /ʌ/ /ʌ/ /ʌ/ /ə/ /ʌ/
/ɝ/ bIRd /ɝː/ /ɜː/ əːʳ /ɜːʳ/ /əː/ /ɜr/ /ɜː(r)/ /ər/ /ɚ:/
/ɚ/ AlbERt /ɚ/ /əʳ/ /əʳ/ /əʳ/ /əː/ /ər/ /ə(r)/ /ər/ /ɚ/
/aʊ/ abOUt /aʊ/ /aʊ/ /aʊ/ /aʊ/ /aʊ/ /aʊ/ /aʊ/ /au̇/ /au/
/aɪ/ bIte /aɪ/ /aɪ/ /aɪ/ /aɪ/ /aɪ/ /aɪ/ /aɪ/ /ī / /ai/
/ɔɪ/ bOY /ɔɪ/ /ɔɪ/ /ɔɪ/ /ɔɪ/ /ɔɪ/ /ɔɪ/ /ɔɪ/ /ȯi/ /ɔi/

この表を画像で見たい場合はこちら

COMPARISON BETWEEN ENGLISH AND JAPANESE VOWELS

Look at the tables.

Are there sounds in English not present in Japanese? Are there sounds in Japanese not present in English?

The sounds that you cannot see in both charts are the sounds that will be difficult for you to pronounce.

Look at the table below. The red ones are sounds in English that does not have any similar Japanese sounds. *The blue ones are sounds that have small similarities to the American sound.

The sounds in red font colors are the sounds that are obviously mispronounced by students because it does not have a direct counterpart in the Japanese sound system.

Table 1.1.-English-

front central back
high /i:/
i
            /u:/
/u/
mid /ei/

/e/

/ə/           /ou/

/ʌ/          /ɔ/

low /æ/
/a*/
/ɑ/

International Phonetic Association, 2018 and Matsuzawa, 2010

Table 1.2-Japanese-

front Central back
high /i: /(い ィ)* /u:/(う ウ)*
mid /ei/ (え エ)* /ou/(おオ)*
low /a/(あ ア)

Ohata, K., 2004 and Halpern, J., 2018 and Matsuzawa, 2010

Table 1.3

front central back
high /i:/*
/i/*
          /u:/*
          /u/*
mid /ei/*

/e/*

/ə/           /ou/*

/ʌ/      /ɔ/*

low /æ/
/a/*
/ɑ/

Chapter 1 /æ/ /ɑ/ /ʌ / /ə/

Lesson 1 /æ/

Common Spelling Patterns
Aa          and, perhaps

How to pronounce.

  1. Imagine a BIG “E” sound (smile)
  2. Add a small “a” sound (drop your jaw)
  3. The sound is like “Ea” (エァ)

英語耳 p.64

Common Japanese Mistake

Students usually produce this sound as /ɑ/.

Minimal Pairs /æ/ /ɑ/

/æ/ /ɑ/
cat   /kæt/ cot   /kɑt/
cap   /kæp/ cop   /kɑp/
Pat   /pæt/ pot   /pɑt/
cab   /kæb/ cob   /kɑb/

Let us practice.

TWO-SYLLABLED WORDS /æ/

INITIAL

  1. anger    / æŋgɚ /
  1. actor     / æktɚ /
  1. apple    / æpl /

MIDDLE

  1. Japan    / dʒəpæn /
  1. rather     / ræðɚ /
  1. latter      / lætɚ /
THREE-SYLLABLED WORDS /æ/

INITIAL

  1. antidote   / æntidout /
  1. ancestry  / ænsestri /
  1. alphabet  / ælfəbet /

MIDDLE

  1. exactly      / igzæktli /
  2. example    / igzæmpl /
  3. dramatic    / drəmætik /

Let’s Phrase it.

  1. fat cat    / fæt kæt /
  2. Nat’s mat   / næts mæt /
  3. angry actor   / æŋgri æktɚ /
  4. batting the stamp   / bætiŋ ðə stæmp /

Tongue Twister

Pat, the cop, saw a cat on the cot near the cab.
/pæt ðə kɑp sɔ ə kæt ɔn ðə kɑt niɚ ðə kæb/

Lesson 2 /ɑ/

Common Japanese Mistake

 

How to pronounce.

  1. Imagine ア
  2. Open your mouth
  3. The back part of your tongue moves down 
  4. Your lips are unrounded

英語耳 p.62

Students usually pronounce this sound as /ɔ/.
Minimal Pairs /ɑ/ /ɔ/